Дата обращения к источнику: 02 августа, 2016
Enerdata is an independent Research & Consulting firm on the global oil, gas, coal, power, renewable and carbon markets established in 1991. Total energy consumption - for each energy product it is the sum of primary production, external trade, marine bunkers (fuel used by boats and aircraft for international transport) and stock variations. For the world, marine bunkers are included. This induces a gap with the sum of regions. Total primary production evaluates the quantity of natural energy resources. Total balance of trade is the difference between exports and imports. The balance of a net exporter appears as a negative value (-). The balance of geographic and geopolitical zones is simply the sum of the trade balance of all the countries. The energy intensity is calculated by dividing the total energy consumption of a country by its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It measures the total amount of energy necessary to generate one unit of GDP. GDP is expressed at constant exchange rate and purchasing power parity to remove the impact of inflation and reflect differences in general price levels and relate energy consumption to the real level of economic activity. Using purchasing power parity rates for GDP instead of exchange rates increases the value of GDP in regions with a low cost of living, and therefore decreases their energy intensities. Total energy includes coal, gas, oil, electricity, heat and biomass.