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Канада

  • Governor General:Julie Payette
  • Премьер-министр:Justin Pierre James Trudeau
  • Столица:Ottawa
  • Языки:English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)
  • Правительство
  • Статистическое агентство
  • Население, человек:36 708 083 (2017)
  • Площадь, кв км:9 093 510 (2017)
  • ВВП на душу населения, долл. США:45 032 (2017)
  • ВВП, млрд. долл. США:1 653,0 (2017)
  • Индекс Джини:34 (2013)
  • Рейтинг Ease of Doing Business:18 (2017)
Все наборы данных:  A E F I M N O P S T U W
  • A
    • Май 2019
      Источник: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 28 мая, 2019
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      The gross nutrient balances (N and P) are calculated as the difference between the total quantity of nutrient inputs entering an agricultural system (mainly fertilizers, livestock manure), and the quantity of nutrient outputs leaving the system (mainly uptake of nutrients by crops and grassland). Gross nutrient balances are expressed in tonnes of nutrient surplus (when positive) or deficit (when negative). This calculation can be used as a proxy to reveal the status of environmental pressures, such as declining soil fertility in the case of a nutrient deficit, or for a nutrient surplus the risk of polluting soil, water and air. The nutrient balance indicator is also expressed in terms of kilogrammes of nutrient surplus per hectare of agricultural land to facilitate the comparison of the relative intensity of nutrients in agricultural systems between countries.
    • Август 2018
      Источник: Food and Agriculture Organization
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 19 ноября, 2018
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      AQUASTAT is FAO's global information system on water and agriculture, developed by the Land and Water Division. The main mandate of the program is to collect, analyze and disseminate information on water resources, water uses, and agricultural water management with an emphasis on countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. This allows interested users to find comprehensive and regularly updated information at global, regional, and national levels.
    • Январь 2014
      Источник: World Resources Institute
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 07 декабря, 2015
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      This dataset shows countries and river basins' average exposure to five of Aqueduct's water risk indicators: baseline water stress, interannual variability, seasonal variability, flood occurrence, and drought severity. Risk exposure scores are available for every country (except Greenland and Antarctica), the 100 most populous river basins, and the 100 largest river basins by area. Scores are also available for all industrial, agricultural, and domestic users' average exposure to each indicator in each country and river basin. Citation: Gassert, F., P. Reig, T. Luo, and A. Maddocks. 2013. “Aqueduct country and river basin rankings: a weighted aggregation of spatially distinct hydrological indicators.” Working paper. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, November 2013. Available online at http://wri.org/publication/aqueduct-country-river-basin-rankings.
    • Август 2015
      Источник: World Resources Institute
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 25 марта, 2019
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      Suggested citation: Luo, T., R. Young, and P. Reig. 2015. "Aqueduct projected water stress rankings." Technical note. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, August 215. Available online at http://www.wri.org/publication/aqueduct-projected-water-stress-country-rankings.    Supplemental Materials: Country Scores                         WRI projected future country-level water stress for 2020, 2030, and 2040 under business-as-usual (BAU), optimistic, and pessimistic scenarios. Each tab lists country projected water stress scores for each scenario and year, weighted by overall water withdrawals. Scores weighted by individual sectors (agricultural, domestic, and industrial) are provided as well.   These global projections are best suited to making comparisons among countries for the same year and among scenarios and decades for the same region. More detailed and localized data or scenarios can better estimate potential outcomes for specific regions and expose large sub-national variations that are subsumed under countrywide water-stress values. The country indicators face persistent limitations in attempting to simplify complex information, such as spatial and temporal variations, into a single number. They also do not account for the governance and investment structure of the water sector in different countries.    It is important to note the inherent uncertainty in estimating any future conditions, particularly those associated with climate change, future population and economic trends, and water demand. Additionally, care should be taken when examining the change rates of a country’s projected stress levels between one year and another, because the risk-score thresholds are not linear. For more information on these limitations, see the technical note.   Projections are described in further detail in: Luck, M., M. Landis, and F. Gassert, “Aqueduct Water Stress Projections: Decadal Projections of Water Supply and Demand Using CMIP5 GCMs,” Technical note (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, April 2015), http://www.wri.org/publication/aqueduct-water-stress-projections.   Water Stress withdrawals / available flow Water stress measures total annual water withdrawals (municipal, industrial, and agricultural) expressed as a percentage of the total annual available blue water. Higher values indicate more competition among users. Score Value [0-1) Low (<10%) [1-2) Low to medium (10-20%) [2-3) Medium to high (20-40%) [3-4) High (40-80%) [4-5] Extremely high (>80%)    
  • E
    • Июнь 2019
      Источник: International Labour Organization
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 17 июня, 2019
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      The employed comprise all persons of working age who, during a specified brief period, were in the following categories: a) paid employment (whether at work or with a job but not at work); or b) self-employment (whether at work or with an enterprise but not at work). Data are disaggregated by economic activity according to the latest version of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) available for that year. Economic activity refers to the main activity of the establishment in which a person worked during the reference period and does not depend on the specific duties or functions of the person's job, but on the characteristics of the economic unit in which this person works.
  • F
    • Март 2018
      Источник: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 24 марта, 2019
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      This dataset shows the state and changes over time in the abstractions of freshwater resources in OECD countries. Water abstractions are a major pressure on freshwater resources, particularly from public water supplies, irrigation, industrial processes and cooling of electric power plants. It has significant implications for issues of quantity and quality of water resources. This dataset shows water abstractions by source (surface and ground water) and by major uses. Water abstractions refer to water taken from ground or surface water sources and conveyed to the place of use. If the water is returned to a surface water source, abstraction of the same water by the downstream user is counted again in compiling total withdrawal. When interpreting those data, it should be borne in mind that the definitions and estimation methods employed by Member countries may vary considerably among countries.
    • Декабрь 2018
      Источник: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 03 декабря, 2018
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      Austria: Long-term annual average 1961-90 Belgium: Data exclude underground flows and include estimates Canada: Long-term annual average 1971-2004 Chile: Long-term annual average 2000-2014 Colombia: Long-term annual average 1974-2012 Czech Republic: The long-term annual average refers to the latest 20 years Denmark: Long-term annual average 1995-2015 Estonia: Long-term annual average refers to the latest 30 years and includes only data about fresh surface water France: Long-term annual average : 1981-2010. Inflow and outflow: outflow is computed using the throughput of rivers having their source in France but the mouth outside France; measures are taken at the French border using the daily throughputs. Precipitation and real evapotranspiration data are derived from a gridded atmospheric model (grid point of 8 by 8 km2) applied to the territory of metropolitan France. Germany: Long-term annual average 1995-2015 Hungary: Long-term annual average 1971-2000 Ireland: Long-term annual average 1981-2010. Groundwater figures are not available and therefore are not included. Israel: Long-term annual average 2000-2013 Italy: Long-term annual average 1971-2000 Japan: Long-term annual average 1971-2006 Korea: Long-term annual average 1974-2003 Latvia: Long-term annual average 2005-2013 Lithuania: Long-term annual average 2000-2014 Mexico: The long-term annual average covers 30 years Netherlands: Long-term annual average 1981-2010 New Zealand: Long-term annual average 1995-2014 Norway: The data for precipitation and evotranspiration refer to the period LTAA (long-term annual average) 1961-90 whereas the others to the period LTAA 1981-2010, that is why precipitation minus evotranspiration is different from internal resources. Poland: Long-term annual average 1951-2014. Estimates on the base of mean annual flow. For more information, see: http://www.kzgw.gov.pl/ , http://www.pgi.gov.pl/ , http://www.psh.gov.pl/ , http://www.imgw.pl/ Slovak Republic: Long-term annual average is 1961-1990 for internal resources, 1961-2000 for external inflow Slovenia: Long-term annual average is 1971-2000 Sweden: Long-term annual average : 1990-2009. The difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration refers to storage Switzerland: Long-term annual average : 1981-2010 Turkey: Long-term annual average: data for internal flow refers to the period 1980-2011 Costa Rica: The long-term annual average refers to 1990-2014 Russia: The long-term annual average refers to 1936-1980
  • I
    • Декабрь 2016
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 19 сентября, 2018
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      This table shows the indoor water conservation practices, Canada and provinces. The table is biennial.
    • Октябрь 2015
      Источник: Water FootPrint Network
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 27 октября, 2015
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      Data cited at: The Water Footprint Network https://waterfootprint.org/en/ Topic: International virtual water flow statistics  Publication: https://waterfootprint.org/en/resources/waterstat/international-virtual-water-flow-statistics/ Reference: Hoekstra, A.Y. & Mekonnen, M.M. (2012) The water footprint of humanity, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(9): 3232–3237 License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
  • M
    • Март 2019
      Источник: World Bank
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 20 марта, 2019
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      Data cited at: The World Bank https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/ Topic: Millennium Development Goals Publication: https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/millennium-development-goals License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/   Relevant indicators drawn from the World Development Indicators, reorganized according to the goals and targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs focus the efforts of the world community on achieving significant, measurable improvements in people's lives by the year 2015: they establish targets and yardsticks for measuring development results. Gender Parity Index (GPI)= Value of indicator for Girls/ Value of indicator for Boys. For e.g GPI=School enrolment for Girls/School enrolment for Boys. A value of less than one indicates differences in favor of boys, whereas a value near one (1) indicates that parity has been more or less achieved. The greater the deviation from 1 greater the disparity is.
  • N
    • Март 2019
      Источник: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 13 марта, 2019
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      It provides a breakdown of government expenditure according to their function. To meet this end, economic flows of expenditure must be aggregated according to the Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG).
    • Октябрь 2015
      Источник: Water FootPrint Network
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 26 октября, 2015
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      Data cited at: The Water Footprint Network https://waterfootprint.org/en/ Topic: National water footprint statistics Publication: https://waterfootprint.org/en/resources/waterstat/national-water-footprint-statistics/ Water footprints of national consumption (1996-2005) Reference: Hoekstra, A.Y. & Mekonnen, M.M. (2012) 'The water footprint of humanity’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(9): 3232–3237. Water footprints of national production (1996-2005) Reference: Hoekstra, A.Y. & Mekonnen, M.M. (2012) 'The water footprint of humanity’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(9): 3232–3237. License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
    • Сентябрь 2017
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 19 сентября, 2018
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      Number of farms by reason for using an off-farm irrigation water source and province.
    • Сентябрь 2017
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 19 сентября, 2018
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      Number of farms by water and energy conservation practices, province and drainage region.
  • O
    • Ноябрь 2017
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 05 июля, 2019
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      This table displays the operation and maintenance costs of drinking water plants, broken down by cost categories for Canada, provinces, territories and drainage regions. The unit of measure is millions of dollars. The table frequency is occasional.
    • Июль 2017
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 05 июля, 2019
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      This table contains 2880 series, with data for years 2015 - 2015 (not all combinations necessarily have data for all years). This table contains data described by the following dimensions (Not all combinations are available): Geography (48 items: Canada; Newfoundland and Labrador; Prince Edward Island; Nova Scotia; ...); Type of supply (3 items: Municipal and non-municipal water supply; Municipal water supply; Non-municipal water supply);  Outdoor water use (20 items: Had a barrel or cistern; Had a lawn; Watered lawn during previous summer; Used a lawn sprinkler or sprinkler system; ...).
  • P
    • Ноябрь 2017
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 05 июля, 2019
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      This table displays the population served by drinking water plants, broken down by source water type for Canada, provinces, territories and drainage regions. The unit of measure is persons. The table frequency is occasional.
    • Ноябрь 2017
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 05 июля, 2019
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      Potable water use by sector and average daily use for Canada, provinces and territories.
    • Ноябрь 2017
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 05 июля, 2019
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      Potable water volumes processed by drinking water plants, by month for Canada, provinces, territories and drainage regions. The unit of measure is cubic metres x 1,000,000.
    • Ноябрь 2017
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 05 июля, 2019
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      This table displays the potable water volumes processed by drinking water plants, broken down by source water type for Canada, provinces, territories and drainage regions. The table frequency is occasional.
  • S
    • Август 2018
      Источник: Social Progress Imperative
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 21 ноября, 2018
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      Data cited at: Social Progress Index https://www.socialprogress.org/download The Social Progress Index is a new way to define the success of our societies. It is a comprehensive measure of real quality of life, independent of economic indicators. The Social Progress Index is designed to complement, rather than replace, economic measures such as GDP. Each year, Social Progress Imperative conducts a comprehensive review of all indicators included in the Social Progress Index framework to check data updates (which frequently include retroactive revisions) and whether new indicators have been published that are well-suited to describing social progress concepts. Such a review necessitates a recalculation of previously published versions of the Social Progress Index, as any removal or additions of indicators to the framework or changes due to retroactive revisions in data from the original data sources prevent comparability between previously published versions of the Social Progress Index and the 2018 Social Progress Index. Therefore, using the 2018 Social Progress Index framework and methodology, we provide comparable historical data for four additional years of the Social Progress Index, from 2014 to 2017. To read more about our methodology, please see the 2018 Methodology here https://www.socialprogress.org/index/methodology
    • Апрель 2019
      Источник: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 12 апреля, 2019
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    • Июнь 2019
      Источник: Sustainable Development Solutions Network
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 09 июля, 2019
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      Data Cited at - Sachs, J., Schmidt-Traub, G., Kroll, C., Lafortune, G., Fuller, G. (2019): Sustainable Development Report 2019. New York: Bertelsmann Stiftung and Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN). The 2019 SDG Index and Dashboards report presents a revised and updated assessment of countries’ distance to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It includes detailed SDG Dashboards to help identify implementation priorities for the SDGs. The report also provides a ranking of countries by the aggregate SDG Index of overall performance.
  • T
    • Февраль 2015
      Источник: University of Keele
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 24 апреля, 2015
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      This water poverty index is a first pass at trying to establish an international measure comparing performance in the water sector across countries in a holistic way that brings in the diverse aspects and issues that are relevant. It does seem to give some sensible results but it does not pretend to be definitive nor offer a totally accurate measure of the situation.
    • Ноябрь 2017
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 05 июля, 2019
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      This table displays the total capital expenditures of drinking water plants, broken down by main type of water source for Canada, provinces and territories. The unit of measure is millions of dollars. The table frequency is occasional.
    • Июль 2018
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 19 сентября, 2018
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      This table shows total water costs for the manufacturing industries, by water cost component, for Canada, provinces, territories or drainage regions. The unit of measure is thousands of dollars.
    • Июль 2018
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 19 сентября, 2018
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      This table shows the total water costs for the mineral extraction and thermal-electric power generation industries, by water cost component, for Canada and regions. The unit of measure is thousands of dollars.
    • Май 2017
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 05 июля, 2019
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      This table contains 5040 series, with data for years 2007 - 2015 (not all combinations necessarily have data for all years). This table contains data described by the following dimensions (Not all combinations are available): Geography (48 items: Canada; Newfoundland and Labrador; Prince Edward Island; Nova Scotia; ...);  Type of supply (3 items: Municipal and non-municipal water supply; Municipal water supply; Non-municipal water supply);  Treatment of drinking water (35 items: Treated water prior to consumption; Used a filter or purifier; Used a filter or purifier on the main supply pipe; Treatment applied to main supply pipe, activated charcoal filter; ...).
  • U
    • Октябрь 2014
      Источник: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 16 июня, 2016
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    • Сентябрь 2018
      Источник: United Nations Environment Programme
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 22 октября, 2018
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    • Июль 2017
      Источник: United Nations Children's Fund
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 23 августа, 2017
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      According to UNICEF report, in 2015, seven out of ten people used a safely managed drinking water service. Universal access to safe drinking water is a fundamental need and human right. Securing access for all would go a long way in reducing illness and death, especially among children. Since 2000, 1.4 billion people have gained access to basic drinking water services, such as piped water into the home or a protected dug well. In 2015, 844 million people still lack a basic water service and among them almost 159 million people still collected drinking water directly from rivers, lakes and other surface water sources. The data reveal pronounced disparities, with the poorest and those living in rural areas least likely to use a basic service. “Safely managed” water services represent an ambitious new rung on the ladder used to track progress on drinking water. In 2015, 5.2 billion people used safely managed services, i.e. accessible on premises, available when needed and free from contamination. A further 1.3 billion used a ‘basic’ water service, i.e. improved sources within 30 minutes per round trip to collect water. Over a quarter of a billion (258 million) used a ‘limited’ service where water collection from an improved source exceeded 30 minutes. In most countries the burden of water collection continues to fall mainly to women and girls.
  • W
    • Март 2019
      Источник: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 01 апреля, 2019
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      This dataset provides information on the level of public equipment installed by countries to managed and abate water pollution. It shows the percentage of national population connected to "public" sewerage networks and related treatment facilities, and the percentage of national population connected to "public" wastewater treatment plants, and the degree of treatment. Connected here means actually connected to a wastewater plants through a public sewage network. Individual private treatment facilities such as septic tanks are not covered here. When analysing these data, it should be kept in mind that the optimal connection rate is not necessarily 100 per cent; it may vary among countries and depends on geographical features and on the spatial distribution of habitats. The interpretation of those data should take into account some variations in countries' definitions, as reflected in metadata.
    • Июль 2018
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 19 сентября, 2018
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      This table shows water acquisition costs for the manufacturing industries, by type of cost, for Canada, provinces, territories or drainage regions. The unit of measure is thousands of dollars.
    • Июль 2018
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 19 сентября, 2018
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      This table shows the volume of water discharge for the manufacturing industries, by point of discharge, for Canada, provinces, territories or drainage regions. The unit of measure is millions of cubic metres.
    • Июль 2018
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 19 сентября, 2018
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      This table shows the volume of water discharge for the manufacturing industries, by type of final treatment, for Canada, provinces, territories and drainage regions. The unit of measure is millions of cubic metres.
    • Сентябрь 2015
      Источник: Water FootPrint Network
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 27 октября, 2015
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      Data cited at: The Water Footprint Network https://waterfootprint.org/en/ Topic: Product water footprint statistics Publication: https://waterfootprint.org/en/resources/waterstat/product-water-footprint-statistics/ Reference: Mekonnen, M.M. & Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15(5): 1577-1600. License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/    
    • Сентябрь 2015
      Источник: Water FootPrint Network
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 27 октября, 2015
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      Data cited at: The Water Footprint Network https://waterfootprint.org/en/ Topic: Product water footprint statistics Publication: https://waterfootprint.org/en/resources/waterstat/product-water-footprint-statistics/ Reference: Mekonnen, M.M. & Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15(5): 1577-1600. License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/  
    • Сентябрь 2015
      Источник: Water FootPrint Network
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 27 октября, 2015
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      Data cited at: The Water Footprint Network https://waterfootprint.org/en/ Topic: Product water footprint statistics Publication: https://waterfootprint.org/en/resources/waterstat/product-water-footprint-statistics/ Reference: Mekonnen, M.M. & Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) A global assessment of the water footprint of farm animal products, Ecosystems, 15(3): 401–415. License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/  
    • Сентябрь 2015
      Источник: Water FootPrint Network
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 27 октября, 2015
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      Data cited at: The Water Footprint Network https://waterfootprint.org/en/ Topic: Product water footprint statistics Publication: https://waterfootprint.org/en/resources/waterstat/product-water-footprint-statistics/ Reference: Mekonnen, M.M. & Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption, Value of Water Research Report Series No.50, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, the Netherlands. License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/  
    • Июль 2018
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 19 сентября, 2018
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      This table shows the volume of water intake for the manufacturing industries, by water source, for Canada, provinces, territories or drainage regions. The unit of measure is millions of cubic metres.
    • Апрель 2019
      Источник: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 12 апреля, 2019
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    • Август 2018
      Источник: EarthEcho Water Challenge
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 22 августа, 2018
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      The pH of pure water is 7. In general, water with a pH lower than 7 is considered acidic, and with a pH greater than 7 is considered basic. The normal range for pH in surface water systems is 6.5 to 8.5, and the pH range for groundwater systems is between 6 to 8.5.
    • Июль 2018
      Источник: Statistics Canada
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 19 сентября, 2018
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      This table shows the volume of water used by the manufacturing industries, by water use parameter, for Canada, provinces, territories or drainage regions. The unit of measure is millions of cubic metres.
    • Июль 2017
      Источник: World Health Organization
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 08 февраля, 2018
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    • Декабрь 2011
      Источник: World Resources Institute
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 15 декабря, 2011
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      Water Resources and Freshwater Ecosystems