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Опубликовано источником: 16 октября 2019
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The Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) gives comparable measures of inflation for the countries and country groups for which it is produced. It is an economic indicator that measures the change over time of the prices of consumer goods and services acquired by households. In other words, it is a set of consumer price indices (CPI) calculated according to a harmonised approach and a set of definitions as laid down in Regulations and recommendations.
In addition, the HICP provides the official measure of consumer price inflation in the euro area for the purposes of monetary policy and the assessment of inflation convergence as required under the Maastricht criteria for accession to the euro.
The HICP is available for all EU Member States, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. In addition to the individual country series there are three key country-group aggregate indices: the euro area, the European Union (EU), and the European Economic Area (EEA), which, in addition to the EU, also covers Iceland and Norway, but not Liechtenstein.
The official country-group aggregates reflect the changing country composition of the EA, the EU and the EEA. The HICP for new Member States is chained into the aggregate indices at the time of accession. For analytical purposes Eurostat also computes country-group aggregates with stable country composition over time. For example, the EU28 aggregate shows price indices covering all current 28 Member States since 1997.
The HICP for Serbia and Turkey (candidate countries) are also published. That data are flagged 'd' ('definition differs'). A proxy-HICP for the all-items and main aggregates is available for the USA.
National HICPs are produced by National Statistical Institutes (NSIs), while the country-group aggregates are produced by Eurostat.
The data released monthly on Eurostat's free dissemination database include price indices and rates of change (monthly, annual and 12-month moving average changes). In addition to the headline figure 'all-items HICP', around four hundred sub-indices for different goods and services and over thirty special aggregates are available, including the HICP at administered prices (HICP-AP). Once a year, with the release of the January data, the relative weights for the indices and the special aggregates, are published for the individual countries and for the European aggregates. The composition of the HICP-AP aggregates, i.e. which sub-indices are classified as mainly or fully administered by each Member State, is also updated at the same time.
Eurostat publishes early estimates, called 'HICP flash estimates', of the euro area overall inflation rate and selected components. They are published monthly, usually on the last working day of the reference month, and disseminated in a news release, in the database and in a Statistics Explained article.
The HICP at constant tax rates (HICP-CT) follows the same computation principles as the HICP, but is based on prices at constant tax rates. The comparison with the standard HICP can show the potential impact of changes in indirect taxes, such as VAT and excise duties, on the overall inflation (more information).
Flags provide information about the 'status' of the data or a specific data value. The following flags are used for the HICP data in the Eurostat online database:
p = provisional data: Data is flagged as provisional by the National Statistical Institutes to signal that data are still being treated or validated. The 'p' flag remains attached to the HICP data values in question for one month only.
r = revised data. In the case when the most recent figures published differ from previously disseminated data, they are flagged with 'r'. Countries are allowed to revise their HICP figures at any point and, therefore, revised figures may appear in historic data. The 'r' flag remains attached to the HICP data values in question for one month only.
e = estimated data. All the figures of the HICP flash estimate are marked with the 'e' flag.
d = definition differs, meaning that the national definition of a series differs from the ECOICOP (European Classification of Individual Consumption according to Purpose) definition. It is also used for data values from countries for which conformity with the requirements of the HICP methodology has not yet been evaluated by Eurostat, including candidate countries, pre-candidate countries, new EU Member States and the United States of America.
u = unreliable data. Data is flagged as unreliable by the National Statistical Institutes.
The p, e, d and u flags described here do not affect the higher level of aggregation when assigned to a figure.