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Johannes Kepler University

The JKU considers itself a strongly rooted, regional institution but at the same time, an internationally-oriented university propelling itself to become a leading European academic institution.

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    • Июль 2017
      Источник: Johannes Kepler University
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 12 марта, 2019
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      Data cited at: Shadow Economies around the World: New Results for 158 Countries over 1991-2015 by Friedrisch SCHNEIDER. Working Paper No. 1710 July 2017   Abstract: This paper is a first attempt to estimate the size and development of the shadow economy of 158 countries over the period 1991 up to 2015. Using the Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes (MIMIC) method we apply for the first time (i) the light intensity approach instead of GDP avoiding the problem that quite often GDP is used as a cause and indicator variable, (ii) the Predictive Mean Matching (PMM) method, and (iii) a variety of robustness tests. Results suggest that the average size of the shadow economy of these 158 countries over 1991-2015 is 32.5% of official GDP, which was 34.82% in 1991 and decreased to 30.66% in 2015. The lowest size of the shadow economy East Asian countries with 16.77% averaged over the period 1991- 2015, then follows OECD countries with 18.7% and the highest value have Latin American and sub-Saharan African countries with values above 35%.
    • Январь 2015
      Источник: Johannes Kepler University
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 18 октября, 2016
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      Data citation: Schneider, Friedrich & Schneider, Friedrich. (2013). Size and Development of the Shadow Economy of 31 European and 5 other OECD Countries from 2003 to 2012: Some New Facts.  The calculation of the size and development of the shadow economy is done with the MIMIC (Multiple Indicators and Multiple Courses) estimation procedure. Using the MIMIC estimation procedure one gets only relative values and one needs other methods like the currency demand approach or the income discrepancy method, to calibrate the MIMIC values into absolute ones. The calculated values for 2014 are projections for some countries, for 2015 they are projections for all countries, based on the forecasts of the official figures (GDP, unemployment, etc.) of these countries.