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Friedrich Schneider

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    • Октябрь 2016
      Источник: Friedrich Schneider
      Загружен: Knoema
      Дата обращения к источнику: 24 ноября, 2017
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      Size and Development of the Shadow Economies of 157 Countries Worldwide-1999 to 2013.   Source:Mai Hassan CNMS, University of Marburg and Friedrich Schneider Johannes Kepler University of Linz and IZA (Discussion Paper No. 10281 October 2016)    Methodology: The shadow economies have been estimated on the basis of MIMIC models. Different MIMIC models have been constructed and used models which have high significance levels. There are two categories of the models are given below, with reduced samples and without reduced samples, Adjusted and Non-adjusted.                                                                     MIMIC estimation of the size of the shadow economy from 1999 to 2013MIMIC estimation of the size of the shadow economy from 1999 to 2013,yearly data for the reduced sampleVariables/spec MIMIC 1 MIMIC 2MIMIC 3MIMIC 1MIMIC 2MIMIC 35-1-34-1-34-1-26-1-25-1-24-1-2Causes      Tax burden0.15**0.15**0.15*0.08*0.08*0.07*-2.07-2.07-2.06-1.7-1.7-1.7Regulatory burden0.29***0.29***0.29***0.26***0.26***0.24***-2.74-2.74-2.73-3.04-3.04-2.82Unemployment rate0.53***0.53***0.52***0.43***0.43***0.41***(first difference)-2.87-2.87-2.86-3.27-3.27-3.03Self-employment rate   0.12**0.10**0.10**(first difference)   -2.2-2.2-2.14Economic Freedom-0.09*-0.10*-0.09**-0.06*-0.06*_____Index(-1.90)(-1.97)(-1.93)(-1.66)(-1.74) (first difference)      Business freedom-0.007_________-0.01_________Index(-0.19)  (-0.38)  (first difference)      Indicators      GDP growth-1***-1***-1***-1***-1***-1***(-2.62)(-2.97)-2.55(-3.34)(-3.33)(-3.08)Currency0.09**0.09**0.09***0.11***0.11**0.10***(first difference)-2.49-2.49-2.55   Labor force rate-0.02-0.02____   (first difference)(-0.54)(-0.55)    Fit Statistics      Chi^2 (pvalue)12.1211.465.449.939.663.44-0.277-0.1768-0.1423-0.0773-0.0465-0.3282GFI0.940.940.970.960.960.98CFI0.9880.9720.9850.9750.9730.995CD0.4610.460.4380.3250.3240.283RMSEA0.010.0140.0190.0250.0290.01Degrees of freedom352720352720Number of219821982198163816381638observations      Number of countries157157157117117117Notes: Absolute z-statistics are reported in parenthesis. *, **, *** denote significance at 10, 5 and 1% significance levels. Goodnessof fit index (GFI): values closer to 0.90 reflect a perfect fit. CFI: when the comparative fit index is closer to one, it indicates a goodmodel fit. SRMR: The values less than 0.08 indicate a good model fit. Coefficient of Determination (CD): A perfect fit corresponds toa CD=1 (Kline, 2011). Degrees of freedom=0.5(p+q)(p+q+1)-t, where p:number of causes, q=number of indicators, t=number of free parameters.